Dermatology Online Journal is an open-access, refereed publication intended to meet reference and education needs of the international dermatology community since 1995. Dermatology Online Journal is supported by the Department of Dermatology UC Davis, and by the Northern California Veterans Administration.
Volume 20, Issue 12, 2015
Nicholas A. Soter, MD, Guest Editor
Primary cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma
We present a 64-year-old man with a three-year history of pruritic, pink papules and nodules of the face who was found to have a clonal lymphoproliferative B-cell disease that was characterized by a clonal IGH rearrangement. Although morphologic features present in the biopsy specimen were consistent with a reactive process, additional clinicopathologic correlation (anatomic presentation of lesions on the face, the absence of t(14:18) translocation, and bcl-2 and MUM1 expression) reinforced suspicion of a cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Systemic work-up with CT/PET and a bone marrow biopsy ultimately excluded systemic disease and primary cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma (PCFCL) was a strong diagnostic consideration. The patient was treated with systemic rituximab with a partial resolution of the facial lesions. The case demonstrates both clinical and pathologic challenges to the diagnosis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (PCBCL). Furthermore, despite a newly refined classification system, the case also specifically highlights the persistent requirement for flexible clinical reasoning and pathologic correlation. Such reasoning is necessary to generate individualized strategies for diagnosis and treatment when cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is suspected.
Indeterminate cell histiocytosis that presented clinically as benign cephalic histiocytosis
Indeterminate cell histiocytosis (ICH) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by immunophenotypic features of both Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-LCH. We describe a 12-month-old boy with a four-month history of asymptomatic, small, pink-tan papules on his face. Histopathologic evaluation showed a superficial, dermal infiltrate of histiocytes that was positive for S100, CD1a, CD68, and Factor XIIIa. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of the clinical presentation of benign cephalic histiocytosis with immunohistochemical findings of ICH. We review the classification of histiocytic disorders and the clinical and immunohistochemical features of both ICH and benign cephalic histiocytosis.
New world cutaneous leishmaniasis
A 24-year-old Bangladeshi man presented with a 12-week history of a pruritic papule on his left elbow that had enlarged and ulcerated. He was without any constitutional or systemic symptoms. He reported a history of extensive travel in the two years prior to presentation that included Bangladesh, South and Central America, and Mexico. Histopathologic features were consistent with leishmaniasis. Speciation by the Centers for Disease Control showed L. brasiliensis.
Plate-like osteoma cutis
Osteoma cutis is the aberrant development of bone within the skin. The bone formation may be de novo (primary) or result from an injury to the skin (secondary). Here we present a healthy 53-year-old man with no known abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism with plate-like osteoma cutis of the scalp. Plate- or plaque-like osteoma cutis was initially described as a congenital condition but has now been reported several times in the literature as an idiopathic process that occurs in adults. Treatment options are limited and are only required if the lesion is bothersome to the patient.
We present a case of exogenous ochronosis in a 53-year-old woman with skin type IV, who used a topical hydroquinone preparation of an unknown concentration for several years. Traditionally, exogenous ochronosis was thought to occur exclusively in patients with darker skin types who use high concentrations of hydroquinone cream. Reports now document cases in patients of all skin types and in patients even using low concentrations of hydroquinone cream for short periods of time. Although the incidence of exogenous ochronosis in the United States is unclear, it may be more common than many clinicians believe. It is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of exogenous ochronosis in order to prevent exacerbation in patients with this rare side effect.
White fibrous papulosis of the neck
We present a 76-year old woman with a five-year history of asymptomatic, white papules that were grouped on the lateral and posterior aspects of the neck, inferior axillae, and central mid-back. The histopathologic findings showed thickened collagen bundles. A diagnosis of white fibrous papulosis of the neck was made, which is believed to be a manifestation of intrinsic aging. There are no treatments for white fibrous papulosis of the neck. One hypothesized approach is the application of a topical anti-oxidant to reduce free-radical induced aging.
Netherton syndrome with ichthyosis linearis circumflexa and trichorrhexis invaginatum
Netherton syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by congenital ichthyosis, trichorrhexis invaginata, and atopic diathesis. Ichthyosis presents at birth with erythroderma and subsequently evolves into ichthyosis linearis circumflexa; hair shaft abnormalities tend to present later. The disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SPINK5 (serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5) gene that encodes LEKTI (lympho-epithelial Kazal-type related inhibitor), which is a protease inhibitor that counteracts epidermal proteases involved in desquamation. Use of topical medications is limited by potential for systemic absorption and toxicity in the setting of a defective skin barrier. Therapeutic options include topical glucocorticoids and retinoids, oral retinoids, and narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy. Topical tacrolimus has been shown to be efficacious and may be used safely with careful laboratory monitoring.
A 26-year-old man presented with an 18-month history of a subcutaneous mass on his forehead that occurred shortly after being struck by a blunt object. Histopathologic examination showed a proliferation of bland spindle cells and a collagenous stroma that was consistent with cranial fasciitis. Cranial fasciitis, which is a variant of nodular fasciitis, is a benign fibroblastic neoplasm that overlies the skull and often is associated with trauma. Although its rapid onset may give the clinical impression of a malignant condition, cranial fasciitis typically is cured by simple excision without further sequelae.
Nevus lipomatosus superficialis
Nevus lipomatosus superficialis is an uncommon cutaneous hamartoma that is characterized by the presence of adipose tissue within the reticular dermis. We describe a 15-year-old boy with a three-year history of the classic type of nevus lipomatosus superficialis, which presented as linear arrays of soft, cerebriform papulonodules and plaques in the right inguinal fold. Investigation for chromosomal aberrations and dysregulation of Wnt signaling may provide insights into the pathogenesis of this hamartoma. Treatment is usually with surgical excision although successful use of other modalities has been described.
Candida parapsilosis of the nail-bed without onychomycosis
Candida parapsilosis is an emerging fungal pathogen that was once thought to be solely a colonizing organism. C. parapsilosis is increasingly becoming reported as the most common Candida species that causes onychomycosis. Clinical findings include typically severe dystrophy of the nail fold and plate as well as thickening and fragmentation of the plate, particularly in the distal plate. We present a unique case of C. parapsilosis infection of the nail bed without infection of the nail plate and with twenty-nail melanonychia
Vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum
Vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, superficial variant of pyoderma gangrenosum that is more commonly found on the trunk as single or multiple, non-painful lesions. There is typically no associated underlying systemic disease. Compared to classic pyoderma gangrenosum, vegetative lesions are more likely to heal without the use of systemic glucocorticoids, although up to 39% of patients required a short course of prednisone in a review of 46 cases. Treatments for vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum include topical and intralesional glucocorticoids, minocycline or doxycycline, dapsone, colchicine, and, rarely, alternative steroid-sparing immunosuppressants. We present a case of multiple vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum lesions arising in prior surgical sites in a patient found to have IgA monoclonal gammopathy and abnormal urinary protein electrophoresis.
Nail lichen planus in a patient with alopecia totalis
A 67-year-old man with a three-year history of non-scarring alopecia that progressed to alopecia totalis despite intralesional glucocorticoid injections is presented. He developed 20-nail dystrophy that was recalcitrant to antifungal and anti-inflammatory treatments. Biopsy of the nail matrix showed histopathologic features of lichen planus. Alopecia totalis and isolated lichen planus of the nails are uncommon subtypes of common dermatologic disorders. Rarely reported concurrently, we provide a review of the literature of their association, which is most likely attributed to their autoimmune pathogeneses.
Palmoplantar lichen planus
Palmoplantar lichen planus (PPLP) is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that affects the palms and soles. Clinical findings are varied although they have been conceptualized into two large groupings, an erythematous scaly pattern and a hyperkeratotic pattern. Histopathologic features are those of classic LP. We present a case of PPLP that improved with methotrexate after failing treatment with acitretin.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an autoimmune bullous disease, which represents the cutaneous manifestation of gluten sensitivity, in the setting of celiac disease. Although classical DH is characterized clinically by grouped, vesicles on an erythematous base, primary lesions often are absent owing to the intense, associated pruritus. Instead, many cases present only with erythematous erosions with numerous overlying excoriations. As in celiac disease, the core pathogenic mechanisms of DH are likely mediated by immunoglobulin A class autoantibodies against one of several transglutaminase enzymes. As the production of these autoantibodies is directly correlated with gastrointestinal exposure to gliadin, which is an alcohol-soluble fraction of gluten, a gluten-free diet represents the cornerstone of a DH management regimen. In cases refractory to dietary management alone, dapsone is the first-line agent for the treatment of DH, although many other agents have been anecdotally reported as effective.
A 55-year-old woman presented after a four-year history of impetiginized eczema that was distributed over her face, scalp, chest, and back and a recent diagnosis of breast cancer. A skin biopsy specimen for direct immunofluorescence demonstrated intercellular IgG4. Anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 antibodies were present. Indirect immunofluorescence testing was positive on monkey but not rat esophagus. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus in association with a malignant condition. After many years of the use of topical glucocorticoids and oral antibiotics, the patient’s disease was ultimately managed with methotrexate and a small dose of prednisone. Increasing data supports a role for a steroid-sparing effect of methotrexate in pemphigus vulgaris and likely pemphigus foliaceus.
Collision tumor of eccrine poroma, seborrheic keratosis, and a viral wart
A 68-year-old woman presented for evaluation of a large, red-brown plaque on her left buttock with irregular borders and prominent overlying verrucous changes. The plaque had been present since childhood but over a three-year period had been enlarging with increasing nodularity and easy bleeding with trauma. Histopathologic examination demonstrated an enlarged papillated and polypoid heterogeneous lesion. In part of the specimen, there are bulbous aggregates of small squamous cells with foci of eccrine ductal differentiation. There are other areas with horn pseudocysts, hypergranulosis, and compact orthokeratosis with parakeratosis. There are scattered enlarged heavily pigmented melanocytes, some of which have long and thick dendrites. This collision tumor consisted of an eccrine poroma, a seborrheic keratosis, and a viral wart. The clinical and histopathologic features of collision tumors and poromas are reviewed.
We report a 46-year-old woman with a nine-year history of obesity; chronic diffuse pain in the adipose tissue of her medial upper arms, lower trunk, and thighs; multiple biopsy-proven lipomas and angiolipomas; and a lipomatous pseudomass of the breast. Her systemic symptoms included generalized weakness, fatigue, memory impairment, and arthralgias. Although some of the lesions were tender, most were only appreciated with palpation. Her clinical history and histopathologic data suggested adiposis dolorosa (Dercum’s disease). Owing to the chronic pain, an interdisciplinary approach with the use of analgesics and doxycycline has been initiated.