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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Dermatology Online Journal

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Dermatology Online Journal is an open-access, refereed publication intended to meet reference and education needs of the international dermatology community since 1995. Dermatology Online Journal is supported by the Department of Dermatology UC Davis, and by the Northern California Veterans Administration.

Volume 27, Issue 3, 2021


Patient safety in dermatology: a ten-year update

Objective: We update and expand our 2010 article in this journal, Patient safety in dermatology: A review of the literature [4][DH1]. Methods: PubMed at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) was searched September 2019 for English language articles published between 2009 and 2019 concerning patient safety and medical error in dermatology. Potentially relevant articles and communications were critically evaluated by the authors with selected references from 2020 added to include specific topics: medication errors, diagnostic errors including telemedicine, office-based surgery, wrong-site procedures, infections including COVID-19, falls, laser safety, scope of practice, and electronic health records. Summary: Hospitals and clinics are adopting the methods of high-reliability organizations to identify and change ineffective practice patterns. Although systems issues are emphasized in patient safety, people are critically important to effective teamwork and leadership. Advancements in procedural and cosmetic dermatology, organizational and clinical guidelines, and the revolution in information technology and electronic health records have introduced new sources of potential error. Conclusion: Despite the growing number of dermatologic patient safety studies, our review supports a continuing need for further studies and reports to reduce the number of preventable errors and provide optimal care.

Clinical interventions aimed at expanding access to dermatologic care

In the United States access to healthcare continues to be a major issue. Although "top down" public policy approaches hold promise for expanding access, a lack of political consensus has hindered progress. A review of the literature was conducted to investigate the efficacy of clinical interventions aimed at expanding access to care from the "bottom up." The greatest improvements in access to care over the past decade have harnessed teledermatology, shared care, appointment scheduling strategies, and team-based care. Optimization of these approaches will require additional population-based, dermatology-specific research. It is clear that dermatologists, using a "bottom up approach," can significantly expand access to care in their communities in a manner that is economically viable and maintains quality of care and patient satisfaction.


A virtual faculty exchange program enhances dermatology resident education in the COVID-19 era: a survey study

One of the many consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic was the cancelation of the 2020 American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting. This conference historically features lectures from world-renowned experts in all areas of dermatology, thus providing an important educational experience for dermatology residents. We hypothesized that the cancellation of this meeting produced a substantial educational loss for dermatology residents. To mitigate this impact, we developed a virtual faculty exchange program and surveyed dermatology residents' perspectives on its implementation. All participating residents found the virtual faculty exchange useful and would recommend it to other residents/programs. Moreover, all residents wanted to participate in more faculty exchange sessions as well as incorporate them throughout the academic year. Additionally, this educational program eliminated the potential cost of >$15,000 in flights and >24 metric tons of carbon emissions. This virtual faculty exchange program is a viable tool to enhance dermatology resident education in the COVID-19 era.

Case Presentation

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis masquerading as cutaneous connective tissue disease

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) is a rare type of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by coral-toned papules with predilection for dorsal surfaces in addition to severe arthropathy. It sometimes proves difficult to differentiate these joint and skin findings clinically from certain rheumatologic diseases, primarily dermatomyositis. Herein, we present an 82-year-old woman who presented with the clinical findings described above and was subsequently diagnosed with MRH after biopsy and review of relevant clinical history. Because about 25% of patients diagnosed with MRH have an underlying occult malignancy, our patient underwent a complete malignancy workup that was negative. She was treated with systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate, which resulted in an improvement of the arthritis and constitutional symptoms. This case demonstrates that in patients with both rheumatologic and dermatologic symptoms, particularly on acral surfaces, MRH must be a diagnostic consideration. Identifying this disease early in its course can prevent negative consequences for the patients, specifically arthritis mutilans and upper airway involvement.

Multifocal pyoderma gangrenosum secondary to subclinical diverticulitis: case report and brief literature review

Pyoderma gangrenosum is characteristically associated with inflammatory bowel disease. However, the association between this neutrophilic dermatosis and diverticular disease is scarcely mentioned in the literature. Diverticulitis should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with pyoderma gangrenosum and gastrointestinal complaints, or even in asymptomatic patients, particularly in the elderly. Misdiagnosis can lead to inadequate treatments and serious complications.

Localized bullous pemphigoid after knee replacement surgery

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) most commonly presents as widespread, itchy, tense blisters in older patients. Localized bullous pemphigoid is a less common form of BP that can be more difficult to diagnose because of its similarity to more common conditions such as allergic contact dermatitis or bullous cellulitis. Prompt recognition of localized BP is important so that appropriate treatment can be started. We present a 57-year-old woman who presented with pruritic tense bullae overlying the surgical scar from a knee replacement 6 months prior on her anterior right knee. This case illustrates the potential for localized BP to be triggered by surgical procedures.

Scleredema diabeticorum in a patient: un uncommon etiology of restrictive lung pattern Escleredema diabeticorum en un paciente: una etiología infrecuente de patrón restrictivo pulmonar

Scleredema adultorum of Buschke is a rare skin disease characterized by skin thickening and tightening typically at the neck and the upper part of the body. This thickening results from increased mucin deposition in the reticular dermis. Three variants are recognized. Scleredema diabeticorum is one subtype associated with diabetes mellitus. We report a man with a history of poorly controlled diabetes presenting with extensive scleredema adultorum of the trunk in a "cuirasse" pattern associated with restrictive lung disease. Cutaneous ultrasonography revealed a marked thickening of the dermis as well as various echogenic spots in the dermis. Cutaneous hardness secondary to scleredema may cause limited mobility. Therefore, respiratory manifestations may be associated and assessed, mainly in cases of extensive scleredema involving trunk and shoulders. Moreover, cutaneous ultrasonography may be useful to monitor the evolution of scleredema and confirm the diagnosis.

Ectopic extramammary Paget disease in thoracic location

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare skin cancer that affects areas with a high concentration of apocrine glands including genital, axillary, and anal skin. When it affects other locations it is called ectopic extramammary Paget disease (E-EMPD) and is uncommon. To date, there are only 45 case reports to the best of our knowledge. The clinical manifestation is typically a soft, red or bright pink patch or plaque with scattered white islands of hyperkeratosis and erosion. Diagnostic confirmation requires conventional histology with immunohistochemistry. The importance of immunohistochemical staining for the diagnosis of primary neoplasia, without underlying malignancy, is highlighted. We report the first Latin American confirmed case, to our knowledge, of primary E-EMPD in a 55-year-old man with a 1-year history of asymptomatic thoracic plaque.

Photo Vignette

Reactive angioendotheliomatosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome

Reactive angioendotheliomatosis (RAE) is an uncommon, benign, antiproliferative condition associated with systemic diseases that may cause occlusion or inflammation of the vascular lumina. A link between antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and RAE has been reported a few times in the literature. Herein, we present a unique case of RAE diagnosed in a patient with primary APS who was well-managed on warfarin and rituximab with no recent thrombotic events. As RAE can precede or follow a diagnosis of APS, the presence of the condition indicates a need to workup for APS and to ensure those with the condition are adequately anticoagulated. However, as demonstrated in this case, the condition can still occur in patients who are adequately anticoagulated.

Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum

Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum (KCM) is an uncommon variant of keratoacanthoma. Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatums are most commonly seen on sun-exposed surfaces and present with progressive peripheral expansion and raised, hyperkeratotic borders. Central clearing with atrophy and lack of spontaneous clearance are other key clinical characteristics. The majority of cases are benign with a low risk of metastasis. The size of such growths is variable with reported cases ranging from 5.0cm×5.0cm to as large as 20.0cm×14.0cm. Treatment options include surgical excision, oral retinoids, and intralesional chemotherapeutics such as methotrexate or bleomycin. We herein present a case of KCM manifesting as an exophytic, crateriform plaque in a 61-year-old man.

Cutaneous metastasis of a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma-unusual presentation

Cutaneous metastasis are uncommon and account for only 2% of all skin cancers, but are extremely rare in hypopharyngeal carcinomas. Although often associated with advanced cancer, cutaneous metastasis can be the first indication of relapse or treatment failure. Additionally, the clinical presentation is widely variable, which can make an early diagnosis difficult. New skin lesions should be evaluated in cancer patients to rule out metastases. Herein, we present a patient with an unusual cutaneous metastasis as the first sign of recurrence of a hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

Cutaneous calciphylaxis of the glans penis presenting as a gangrenous ulceration

Report _Case Presentation X Photo Vignette _Letter Authors declare that the contents of this article are their own original unpublished findings. Title: Cutaneous calciphylaxis of the glans penis presenting as a gangrenous ulceration Authors: Marie Danset, Cécile Lesort, Denis Jullien, Jean Kanitakis Affiliations: Dermatology Department, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Claude Bernard Lyon I University, Lyon, France Corresponding Author: Jean Kanitakis, Department of Dermatology, Edouard Herriot Hospital Group, 69437 Lyon Cedex 03, France, Tel: 33-472110301, Email: Abstract: Calciphylaxis is a rare microvascular disorder causing necrotic skin ulcers. It is characterized by deposits of calcium within vascular walls but its precise pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A major risk factor is end-stage renal disease on dialysis. We report a 67-year-old man with calciphylaxis revealed by an unusual necrotic ulcer of the glans penis. The patient also presented with bilateral panniculitis of the thighs and a calf ulcer. All those lesions were painful, highlighting the value of pain as a diagnostic clue. Penile involvement of calciphylaxis is rare and biopsy is often avoided in this area. However, rapid diagnosis of calciphylaxis is important because early treatment has a better chance of being successful. Our patient's condition deteriorated rapidly with development of bilateral retinal artery occlusion and he died shortly thereafter. This case further highlights the fact that calciphylaxis is a systemic vascular disease with an ominous prognosis.

Nivolumab-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient with lung cancer

Nivolumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G4 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody approved for use in the treatment of several malignancies such as lung cancer. Cutaneous reactions to checkpoint inhibitors are frequent, appearing in approximately 40% of patients. Although most of the reactions are well tolerated, these drugs can lead to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, but a quick recognition of the symptoms can significantly decrease their mortality. In this case report, we describe a patient with metastatic squamous lung cell carcinoma suffering from nivolumab-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome with severe skin denudation and mucosal involvement.

Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the scalp

Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is a rare, benign adnexal tumor of eccrine or apocrine origin that typically presents at birth or before puberty. Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is associated with a nevus sebaceus in about 40% of cases. We present a 50-year old woman with a pink-orange plaque and nodule on the scalp, consistent with syringocystadenoma papilliferum that arose within a nevus sebaceus.

Symmetric facial macules in an Asian woman

Hori nevus, also known as acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules, is a form of dermal melanocytosis found most commonly in women of East Asian heritage. It presents as discrete brown macules on the bilateral cheeks which later coalesce into confluent grey-brown macules and small patches. Herein, we report a classic case of Hori nevus and discuss the histologic findings and differential diagnosis. We also review the proposed pathophysiology, genetic considerations, and treatment options.