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Dermatology Online Journal

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Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in a woman with metabolic syndrome


Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin condition. It belongs to a group of skin and elastic fiber disorders. When it affects sun-exposed skin, it is also called actinic granuloma. The etiology and pathogenesis are still debated. However, sun-induced actinic damage to elastic fibers is acknowledged as the primary triggering factor, though the pathogenesis of instances in sun-covered areas is unknown. The most commonly linked systemic illness is diabetes mellitus. Different case reports show an association of this disease with hematological conditions, infections, sarcoidosis, and protoporphyria. Multisystemic involvement was also reported in a case. The disease is clinically recognized by erythematous non-scaly annular patches and plaques with raised borders and hypopigmented or skin-colored centers, sometimes atrophic. It is usually asymptomatic or mildly itchy. The presence of an inflammatory infiltration with non-palisading granulomas, multinucleate large cells, elastin degradation, and elastophagocytosis, as well as the absence of necrobiosis and mucin, are histopathological characteristics. We report a 5-year history of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in a 66-year-old woman with a history of type two diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fatty liver disease (steatosis). She presented with asymptomatic polymorphic erythematous skin lesions mainly in sun-exposed areas.

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